5 Causes of the Russian Revolution! This page was last edited on 19 November 2020, at 00:05. There had already been too many nights of madness in 1917 as the Russian Revolution rocked Petrograd (renamed from St. Petersburg at the onset of World War I … However, this class was excluded from the political system and resented the Tsar’s restrictions on its political and personal freedoms. The Tsar refused to enter into peace negotiations with the Central Powers, despite several defeats on the Eastern Front and ordinary people's suffering. Radical groups like the Bolsheviks stated that they wanted to bring an end to the war. Politically, the people of Russia resented the autocracy of Tsar Nicholas II and the corrupt and anachronistic elements in his government. [8] The authority of the Tsar ebbed away, and he was forced to abdicate. The first revolution transferred the power of the Tsar to Duma. Nineteen seventeen is a year that resonated through the 20th century. The catalyst for the revolution was the First World War. In 1917 Lenin returned to Russia from exile with German help. By 1917 the bond between the tsar and most of the Russian people had been broken. Why was Germany defeated at the First Battle of the Marne (1914), Origins of World War One - Top Ten Booklist. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The Russian Revolution of 1917 popularly known as the Bolshevik Revolution is one of the most significant events in the history of the world and ranks in importance in the category of the French Revolution. Many factors caused the Russian Revolution. The Tsarist government became very unpopular. Russia was changing in the early years of the twentieth century. One during 1905 and then a series of revolutions during 1917. This timeline is a chronology of the causes and main events of the 1917 Russian Revolution. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). NB. But it was the government’s inefficient prosecution of World War I that finally provided the challenge the old regime could not meet. When Cossacks violently broke up a demonstration in St Petersburg, with many deaths, the country saw widespread revolts. 1. This became known as the October Revolution.[9]. The autocratic Tsarist regime was unwilling to change with their society. Autocratic Rule of the Czars: Czar Alexander II brought some reforms in Russia and became famous among all. The Russian Romanov dynasty collapsed in the chaos of the Russian Revolution of 1917. On February 23, 1917, an unseasonably warm day, women at the Vyborg cotton mills in the Russian city of Petrograd (formerly St. Petersburg) marked the … WWI caused the spark that ignited the revolution. In countries like Russia, where Eastern Orthodoxy was the dominant religion, dates were reckoned according to the Julian calendar. The 2,500 delegates to this soviet were chosen from factories and military units in and around Petrograd. The Revolution is often inevitable because of the unequal nature of Russian society and its undemocratic political system. Start studying Russian Revolution 1917 - Causes. Tsar Nicholas II ‘indulged in a fantasy of absolute power,’ and he believed that God had appointed him to the throne. Aleksandr Kerensky, the prime…. The Russian Revolution of 1917 was one of the most significant events in the 20th century. A new industrial class of workers was emerging, and society was becoming increasingly urbanized. This was exacerbated by corruption in the government and a scarcity of food that caused riots to break out first in the capital city of Petrograd and then in other cities. Essentially, the lives of most Russians became intolerable. However, the leader of the Provisional Government, Alexander Kerensky, refused to compromise. The causes of these two revolutions encompass Russia’s political, social, and economic situation. It accentuated the tensions in Russian society and unleashed forces that Romanov regime could not control. Kerensky became head of the Provisional Government in July and put down a coup attempted by army commander in chief Lavr Georgiyevich Kornilov (according to some historians, Kerensky may have initially plotted with Kornilov in the hope of gaining control over the Petrograd Soviet). The tsar’s reactionary policies, including the occasional dissolution of the Duma, or Russian parliament, the chief fruit of the 1905 revolution, had spread dissatisfaction even to moderate elements. [6] That year, the Tsar and his family were very popular, and it seemed to the revolutionaries that there would never be a revolution. On March 13, 1881, one of the most reformist Russian tsars since the time of Peter the Great (1672-1725) fell victim to assassination by revolutionaries from the Narodnaya Volya. The Russian Revolution of 1917 involved the collapse of an empire under Tsar Nicholas II and the rise of Marxian socialism under Lenin and his Bolsheviks. The suffering people and the common soldiers grew impatient and demanded immediate change and, above all, peace. But place matters here as much as time – “place” meaning not just Russia, but Petrograd, as the imperial capital became known after “St Petersburg” was de-Germanised on the outbreak of war in 1914. Lavr Georgiyevich Kornilov inspecting Russian troops, 1917. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. But this doesn't solve all of Russia's problems. The new government keeps Russia in the war which continues to deplete its resources and people. Although there were a large number of events that culminated in the October 1917 Revolution, I have chosen to focus solely on those within the 20th century. The way to a Russian revolution had been cleared. However, following the Tsarist government's collapse, many local committees are known as Soviets and took power all over Russia. 1917 saw two distinct revolutions in Russia: the overthrow of the Tsarist regime and formation of the Provisional Government ( February Revolution), and the October Revolution in which the Bolsheviks overthrew the Provisional Government. By autumn the Bolshevik program of “peace, land, and bread” had won the party considerable support among the hungry urban workers and the soldiers, who were already deserting from the ranks in large numbers. It was rapidly industrializing, and the country’s economy was growing fast.[2]. Although a previous coup attempt (the July Days) had failed, the time now seemed ripe. At the First All-Russian Congress of Soviets, convened on June 3 (June 16), the Socialist Revolutionaries were the largest single bloc, followed by the Mensheviks and Bolsheviks. The rise of the Soviet Union from the Romanovs' ashes is perhaps the most important event in the twentieth century. The October Revolution saw Vladimir Lenin’s Bolsheviks seize power at the expense of more moderate social democrats (Mensheviks) and conservative “Whites.” Russia’s former allies, who were still fighting in World War I, soon identified the Bolsheviks as a threat equal to that of Germany, and they dispatched troops to Russia. The Regime's repressive policies and scandals further undermined its legitimacy. Kerensky’s attempt to organize resistance proved futile, and he fled the country. Ill-equipped and poorly led, Russian armies suffered catastrophic losses in campaign after campaign against German armies. Short-Term Causes of the end of Tsarism (March 1917) Petrograd workers protest food shortages and criticize the Tsarist regime, March 8-10 Petrograd was on of the main cities of the empire The Russian government was very tenuous- whether it would survive at all was point of debate in the years preceding World War One The… The Russian Revolution 1917 can be compared to Julius Caesar, because of the overthrowing of the government, people fighting over food shortages, killed most of Russia’s army, suffering in … Their sacrifices and protests eventually made the revolution come true. The three major causes of the Russian Revolution were Russia’s participation in World War I, an unstable government and Vladimir Lenin. The period after emancipation was the first time the lower classes of Russia had been free to […] The revolution ultimately led to the establishment of the future Soviet Union as an ideocracy; however, the establishment of such a state came as an ideological paradox, as Marx's ideals of how a socialist state ought to be created were based on the formation being natural and not artificially incited (i.e. What was the impact of Ivan the Terrible on Russia? 1, which directed the military to obey only the orders of the Soviet and not those of the Provisional Government. A People's Tragedy: The Russian Revolution: 1891-1924, The Origins of the Russian Revolution, 1861-1917, Passage Through Armageddon: The Russians in War and Revolution, 1914–1918, A history of modern Russia from Nicholas II to Vladimir Putin, https://dailyhistory.org/index.php?title=Why_did_the_Russian_Romanov_Dynasty_collapse_in_1917%3F&oldid=21193. But this doesn't solve all of Russia's problems. From the time of Peter I (Peter the Great), the czardom increasingly became an autocratic bureaucracy that imposed its will on the people by force, with wanton disregard for [1] The Tsarist government repressed any signs of organized dissent, and as a result, there were many political prisoners. The industrial revolution reached Russia significantly later than the rest of Europe. The tsar and other Romanovs were executed by the Bolsheviks after the revolution. All that now prevented the Petrograd Soviet from openly declaring itself the real government of Russia was fear of provoking a conservative coup. The majority of the population were still peasants that often worked the land for wealthy landlords and endured lives of great hardship. After the turbulent period following the Russian Revolution of 1917, from 1921 onwards Kiev was an important city of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, and, from 1934, its capital. Governmental corruption and inefficiency were rampant. On March 15, 1917, Nicholas II abdicated the throne. The war made revolution inevitable in two ways: it showed Russia was no longer a military match for the nations of central and western Europe, and it hopelessly disrupted the economy. The revolution was the culmination of a long period of repression and unrest. Their slogan was ‘Peace and Bread.’ The Provisional Government was fast losing control of the situation. Workers’ Rights Issues The emancipation of the serfs led to a dramatic increase in population in Russian cities, as people moved away from the countryside to urban areas. Not until Richard Pipes’s The Russian Revolution (1990) however, was there a serious reappraisal of the revolutions of 1917 as a whole. The new government keeps Russia in the war which continues to deplete its resources and people. Sometime in the middle of the 19th century, Russia entered a phase of internal crisis that in 1917 would culminate in revolution. However, the Russian Revolution was not unavoidable and directly resulted from the impact of the First World War on Russia. Updates? Communist parties were formed on a world scale after the Russian Revolution. The industrial workers and the peasants did not benefit from the economic expansion in any way. Russia endured hefty casualties, and it placed a great strain on its resources. Many of the Soviets were dominated by the Bolsheviks or Communists loyal to their exiled leader Lenin. It accentuated the tensions in Russian society and unleashed forces that the Romanov regime could not control. The period after emancipation was the first time the lower classes of Russia had been free to […] On October 24–25 (November 6–7) the Bolsheviks and Left Socialist Revolutionaries staged a nearly bloodless coup, occupying government buildings, telegraph stations, and other strategic points. Both refuse and the rebellion is crushed by government troops.July 8th: The Petrograd uprising causes the liberal coalition in the Provisional Government to collapse. The Russian Revolution was, while a huge economic, social, and political change, the result of a number of different factors that built up over time, including economic, military, and political circumstances. The Tsar faced losing power and made significant concessions to secure his position. For the sake of…, While Britain, France, Italy, Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Turkey all survived their crises of 1917 and found the will and stamina for one last year of war, Russia succumbed. 16. What caused the October 1917 Russian Revolution? A scandal also made the Tsar and his family hated by many. In these soviets, “defeatist” sentiment, favouring Russian withdrawal from the war on almost any terms, was growing. The Russian Empire was an autocracy, where effectively the Tsar’s will was the law. 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